The paper mainly considers research into both ASM gold and gemstones, with slight references to the industrial and building materials, sometimes known as “development minerals.” It is structured in three parts, starting with scoping the role of women in ASM accompanied by case studies. The second part presents some of the key challenges faced by women in ASM at the policy and practice spectrums. The third part discusses some of the important elements needed to enable women transition from marginalization and limited and unremunerated activities to active participation, owning and running of successful businesses in and around mining, and independent and influential voices heard in key decision-making processes. The paper concludes with final remarks.