This literature review attempts to synthesize and expand current knowledge concerning the consultation and participation of Indigenous peoples within the international mining sector. It provides an overview and synthesis
of consultation and engagement practices, drawing from academic literature, as well as civil society, industry, and government initiatives. However, the authors also attempt to move the debate away from a narrowed focus on consultation. They argue that a shift toward “responsible” mining requires a broader approach—the meaningful participation of Indigenous peoples at both the consultation and decision-making level of natural resources management, including the right to prior informed consent.