This study on the economics of gender differences examines whether the mining industry acts as a blessing or curse for women’s well-being and economic status. The analysis focuses on the impact of proximity to mineral deposits and active mines on various measures of women’s agency and health in India. Identification leverages the plausibly exogenous spatial variation in the occurrence of mineral deposits across districts. Results indicate that women’s outcomes improve in the vicinity of mines with improvements in shared decision-making, reductions in barriers to accessing medical care, and reduced tolerance of physical violence.