This paper is the product of a culturally relevant, gender-based analysis of the existing literature, law and statistics related to exploration and mining activities that may have disproportionately positive and negative effects on Indigenous women, girls, Two-spirited, and gender-diverse persons. While the lack of data and information on the experiences of Two-spirited and gender diverse Indigenous persons has constituted a major impediment to conducting a gender-based analysis of the effects of mining activities on these groups, it is ultimately an important finding that primary research into these effects must be supported.