This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter 2 depicts the mining sector at a glance, as well as some of the critical challenges it faces. Chapter 3 describes the history and roles of women in the male-dominated mining industry, and the issues and barriers that women continue to face today. Chapter 4 presents both the challenges and opportunities to advance gender equality in the mining sector in terms of the four strategic objectives of the Decent Work Agenda: employment creation, social protection, rights at work and social dialogue. Finally, Chapter 5 sets out suggestions for policies and measures to advance gender equality and decent work in mining.